Nebula + Color Palette
make the clock reverse…
“I’m going to keep going until I succeed — or die. Don’t think I don’t know how this might end. I’ve known it for years.”
I do. I need you.
We only have each other
It’s just you and me
What are we gonna do?
Do you want to build a snowman?
Hogwarts Founders + name meanings; insp.
You might belong in…
The riffs in this city run far deeper than I even imagined, Niklaus. These tribes, these factions, the families. The families will choose to fight.
The Originals 1x18 : The Big Uneasy
Co-dominance: Multiple Alleles:
Many genes in the population exist in more than just 2 allelic forms. A good example of this is the ABO blood group in humans.
Blood group type is caused by 1 of 3 different carbohydrates (oligosaccharides) that are found attached to proteins on the surface of blood cells. These glycoproteins play a role in cell-cell recognition and cell-cell adhesion. It is genetically determined what kinds of carbohydrates or sugars are found at the very edges of these glycoproteins. Specifically, there is a family of enzymes called glycosyltransferases that transfer a sugar residue onto some substrate. Glycosyltransferases can add the terminal sugar onto these glycoproteins that are on the outside of our cells.
There are a number of different alleles that encode glycosyltransferases. If you have a mutation in the allele that encodes glycosyltransferases, represented as i, that means that you don’t add any terminal sugar at all onto your glycoproteins, that is considered type O blood. The other 2 alleles are called A and B. Type A and type B are different kinds of glycosyltransferases that are capable of adding different terminal sugars onto your glycoproteins. A adds the sugar N-acetylgalactosamine, and the B glycosyltransferases adds galactose. So the terminal sugar on the glycoproteins of your cell is determined by what you have going on at the i locus. You can either have the I^A allele which is going to add N-acetylgalactosamine sugar, the I^B allele which is going to add the sugar galactose, or the lower case i allele which is a mutant enzyme and doesn’t add any sugar at all. They are co-dominant because if you are heterozygous, if you’ve inherited one I^A and one I^B, both are dominant so you will have glycoproteins that have N-acetylgalactosamine and other glycoproteins that have galactose – so you’ll have type AB blood.
Type A blood (that’s the phenotype) means that you must have at least one allele that encodes the A glycosyltransferase. You can be homozygous for that or heterozygous, you can also have the lower case i allele which is a non-starter (there is no glycosyltransferase). People who have type B blood can be either homozygous for the B allele or heterozygous for B and i. The only time the phenotype definitely tells you the genotype is if you are AB because then you must have one of each, or if you are O which means you must have 2 dead enzymes.
In our immune system we recognize foreign in the context of self – we know what our own cells look like and anything that doesn’t look like that is considered foreign. Matching compatible blood groups is critical because a person produce antibodies against foreign blood groups (i.e. against that sugar NOT contained on their own blood cells) which can cause agglutination (severe clumping) during transfusion.